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Journal Articles

A select list.


Bhang DH, Choi US, Jung YC, Kim MK, Choi EW, Seo KW, Kang MS, Hwang CY, Kim DY, Youn HY, Lee CW. Topical 0.03% tacrolimus for treatment of pemphigus erythematosus in a Korea Jindo dog. J Vet Med Sci. 2008 Apr;70(4):415-7.

ABSTRACT: Topical 0.03% tacrolimus was used for treatment of a Korea Jindo dog diagnosed with pemphigus erythematosus. The dog was slowly improved following application of tacrolimus but did not achieve complete remission until end of this study. No adverse effects on clinical or laboratory parameters were noted during the topical tacrolimus therapy period.



Yamato O, Lee KW, Chang HS, Tajima M, Maede Y. Relation between erythrocyte reduced glutathione and glutamate concentrations in Korean Jindo dogs with erythrocytes possessing hereditary high activity of Na-K-ATPase and a high concentration of potassium. J Vet Med Sci. 1999 Oct;61(10):1179-82

ABSTRACT: The concentrations of sodium, potassium, reduced glutathione (GSH) and free amino acids and Na-K-ATPase activity in erythrocytes were examined in 35 purebred Jindo dogs in Korea. The incidence of Jindo dogs with a high potassium concentration and high activity of Na-K-ATPase in erythrocytes (HK phenotype) was 25.7%. The erythrocyte GSH concentration in HK Jindo dogs varied widely, from 2.45 to 12.38 mmol/l of RBCs, and was positively correlated with the erythrocyte glutamate concentration. These results indicate that HK Jindo dogs have normal to very high levels of erythrocyte GSH, which might result from the varying quantity of Na-dependent glutamate influx in the erythrocytes.


Health, Ancestry

Fujise, Hiroshi; Higa, Kazunari; Nakayama, Takahiro; Wada, Kayoko; Ochiai, Hideharu and Yuichi Tanabe. Incidence of Dogs Possessing Red Blood Cells with High K in Japan and East Asia. The Journal of veterinary medical science. 59( 6): 495-497. (Jun 1997)

ABSTRACT: The phenotype of high K (HK) red blood cells, which is an autosomal recessive, was found in dog groups from 10 of 13 breeds or populations in Japan. The incidence of HK was 26 to 38% in the San-in-Shiba, Shinshu-Shiba and Akita breeds, and the gene frequencies of HK ranged from 0.513 to 0.612. The highest incidence (42%) was found in the Jindo breed from Korea, and the gene
frequency was 0.652. Two other groups from Korea also possessed this HK variation. However, although HK cells were not found in dogs from Taiwan, Mongolia and Sakhalin, Russian, the HK phenotype is clearly distributed now throughout Japan and Korea.

COMMENTS: Very interesting article for the researcher and layman. It gives evidence on the flow of dogs from Korea to Japan. The following quotes are what I consider crucial conclusions that every Jindo owner should be aware of::

"There are a couple of clinical problems related with high K (potassium) cells or hyperkalemia. The first is pseudohyperkalemia where cellular K may leak out from red blood cells into the serum during separation procedures confusing diagnosis. The second possibility is life-threatening hyperkalemia resulting from transfusion. In this instance, the availability of fresh blood as well as stored blood is critical
because K may move from plasma when the recipient is acidotic or the hemolysis may result from improper transfusion."

"HK cells also exhibit high sensitivity to onion extracts and aromatic sulfide and have a tendency to hemolyze."



Kim KS, Tanabe Y, Park CK, Ha JH. Genetic variability in East Asian dogs using microsatellite loci analysis. J Hered. 2001 Sep-Oct;92(5):398-403

ABSTRACT: An analysis of eight microsatellite loci in 213 animals was performed to define the genetic structure and variability of 11 East Asian native dog populations. Allele diversity, observed heterozygosities, expected heterozygosities, F-statistics, G(ST) estimates, number of migrants per generation (Nm), and Nei's DA distance were calculated. Expected mean heterozygosities of Asian native dogs varied within a range of 0.310-0.718 with a mean value of 0.580. In a sample of 11 Asian dogs, the highest genetic diversity was exhibited in the Korean native dogs and the lowest in the Shiba, the Japanese native dog. All populations except the Kishu and Akita showed statistically significant deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium at more than one locus. After corrections for multiple significance tests, deviations over all loci were statistically significant in 7 of 11 dog populations, meaning that Asian dogs are genetically subdivided (global F(ST) = 0.154). Despite the locus-specific deviations, statistically significant departures from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium reflect deviations in the direction of heterozygote deficit, the global F(IS) being 0.072. In the neighbor-joining and unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) dendrograms based on Nei's DA distance, the Korean native breeds (the Sapsaree and the Jindo) were grouped together, then with the Eskimo dog. The two Japanese native dogs (the Hokkaido and the Akita) also clustered together, with moderate bootstrap support. In spite of some deviation, the three-dimensional scattergram based on principal components supported the conclusions suggested by the dendrograms based on Nei's DA distance. From these two analyses, the Korean native dogs formed the closest groups and then showed a close relationship to the Eskimo dogs, reflecting the fact that the Korean native dogs might be originated from dogs in the northern part of Far East Asia.



Ha Won Jeong; Kim, Kyung Seok; and Ji Hong Ha. Analysis of Phylogenic Relationships among the Asian 8 Dog Breeds (Canis familiaris) through Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA. Korean J. Genetics. 19 (2): 143-129. (Jun 1997)

ABSTRACT: Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) was exploited as a genetic marker to assess the level of genetic variation among Asian 8 dog breeds. To obtain distinct band patterns, we tested 50 RAPD primers in an initial screening with PCR by suing dog blood DNA. OF those, 17 primers showed clear polymorphic band patterns among dog breeds that corresponded to products of PCR that ranged in length from 0.3 to 1.5 kb, while the others produced identical band patterns or no band at all. 231 bands of the amplified DNA bands were generated by the 17 primers and 73 (31.6%) of 231 bands showed polymorphism. Dissimilarity coefficients among the 8 Asian dog breeds which were estimated by using the UPGMA method were ranged from 0.072 to 0.236. In the genetic relationships based on UPGMA dendrogram, Asian 8 dog breeds were classified into four groups, A group (Shiba), B group (Pug, Pekingese), C group (Sapsaree, Jin-do dog, Akita inu and Tosa) and D group (Japanese Chin). According to this study, RAPD seems to be a valuable tool for phylogenic analysis of dog breeds.



Lee, Sang-Ukl Hong, Sung-Yong; Ha, Ji-Hong. The Pedigree Analysis of Korean Native Dog, Sapsaree by Mitochondrial DNA RFLP. Korean J. Genetics. 17(1) 17-24 (1995)

ABSTRACT: Analysis of mtDNA RFLP for the Korea dog breeds, Sapsaree, Jindo dog and Heterogeneous aboriginal dog (HAD) showed 7 different genotypes which were made by 5 restriction enzymes. Four of them were found in the Sapsaree population. Three genotypes of Sapsaree were also found in Jindo dog and HAD, and one genotype in the Sapsaree population only. The genotypes of the Korean dog breeds had low nucleotide divergency among them was determined to be 0.176% which showed that all the Korean native dogs had a close maternal relationship. Molecular weight of Sapsaree mtDNA was also determined to be 16 kb from the results of restriction map.



Umenishi, F., Han, B., and Ikemoto, S. Mitochondrial DNA polymorphism in Jindo Dogs. The Journal of veterinary medical science. n.2. pp. 313-317. (Apr. 1, 1993)

ABSTRACT: Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) polymorphism was studied in 21 Jindo dogs inhabiting Jin Island off the Korean peninsula. The polymorphism was analyzed with 10 restriction endonucleases that recognize six base pairs. The sizes of the mtDNA fragments produced by digestion using each endonuclease were separated by agarose gel electrophoresis, and the polymorphisms were detected with Japanese mongrel dog mtDNA as a probe. The mtDNA polymorphism in Jindo dogs was observed with four restriction endonucleases, Apa I, EcoR V, Hinc II, and Sty I. However, no polymorphism was detected with BamH1, Bgl II, Hind III, Pst I, or Xba I. The observed restriction endonuclease morphs were classified into 4 types of distinct cleavage patterns. The average number of nucleotide substitutions per nucleotide site in Jindo dogs was estimated to be 0.0086. By UPG phylogenetic analysis, the 4 mtDNA types showed only one cluster. This suggests that Jindo dogs have not diverged from the other cluster up to the present and the species is considerably pure.



Tanabe, Yuchi. The origin of Japanese Dogs and their Association with Japanese people. Zoological Science. 8: 639-651 (1991)

Tanabe, Y.; Ota, K.; Ito, S.; Hashimoto, Y.; Sung, Y.Y.; Ryu, J.K.; and M.O. Faruque. Biochemical-genetic relationships among Asian and European dogs and the ancestry of the Japanese native dog. J. Anim. Breed. Genet. 108: 455-478. (1991)

COMMENTS: Very nice pair of articles even if it revolves around Japanese breeds.



Jang, Myung-Hee; Lee, Hee-Young; and Jong-Bong Kim. A-10. Studies on the Constituents and Isozymes of Plasma Proteins in Korean Jindo Dog. Department of Biology Education. Hyosung Women's University.

ABSTRACT: The researches on constituents and genetic variation of plasma proteins were carried out in Korean Jindo dog. Electrophoretic patterns of plasma protein showed five fractions. Mean concentrations of total and fractional protein were varied as a breeding condition, sex and hair colour. Also, a total of 20 loci from 9 plamsa proteins were analyzed.
(abstract found in Hanguk Yujaeon Hakhoe chi. 11(4): 288. (1989))






last updated on 1/5/09